Solar Power Principle And Technology Application

- Dec 07, 2017 -

First, the principle of solar power generation:

(1) how does a solar cell work?

The working principle of crystal silicon n/p solar cells: when the P type semiconductor and the N type semiconductor are tightly combined into one piece, the p-n junction is formed at the interface of the two. When the photocell is irradiated by sunlight, there is positive and negative charge accumulation on both sides of the p-n junction, resulting in photoinduced voltage and the built-in electric field, which is called the photovoltaic effect. In theory, at this time, if the two sides of the internal electric field lead to the electrode and attach the proper load, the current will be formed and the power will be obtained on the load. A solar cell component is a solid device that uses the electronic characteristics of semiconductor materials to achieve P-V conversion.

(two) basic composition of solar system

As shown above, the solar power generation system consists of solar cell components, solar controller and battery (Group).  If the output power is AC 220V or 110V, the inverter is also required.

(three) the role of each part is

Solar panels: solar panels are the core part of the solar power generation system and the most valuable part of the solar power generation system. The function is to convert the solar radiation to electrical energy, or to store it in the battery or push the load.

Solar controller: the role of solar controller is to control the working state of the whole system, and to play the role of battery charging protection and over discharge protection. In the place where the temperature difference is larger, the qualified controller should also have the function of temperature compensation. Other additional functions such as the light control switch and the time control switch should be the option of the controller.

Battery: usually lead acid battery, small micro system, also can use nickel hydrogen battery, nickel cadmium battery or lithium battery. The effect is to store the energy emitted by the solar panel in light of the light and release it when needed.

Inverter: the direct output of solar energy is generally 12VDC, 24VDC, 48VDC. In order to provide electrical energy to 220VAC electrical appliances, it is necessary to convert the direct current energy generated by the solar power system to the alternating current power, so we need to use the DC-AC inverter. Efficiency is one of the most important criteria for the selection of inverters. The higher the efficiency means, the less the amount of electricity generated in the process of converting the DC electrical components into alternating current. It can be said that the quality of the inverter determines the efficiency of the power generation system, which is the core of the solar power system.

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